Clinical Medicine Research

ISSN Online: 2326-9057 ISSN Print: 2326-9049

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Volume 4, Issue 4, July 2015

  • Authors: Idung Alphonsus Udo, Umoh Kufre Albert

    Abstract: Introduction: Dietary Supplements are one of the most easy to access complementary therapies. Their popularity is related to increasing public awareness about health and health related issues. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence, clinical and socio-demographic profiles of dietary supplements users among outpatient clinic attendees in the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, a tertiary health institution in Uyo, South-South Nigeria. Method: This was a prospective descriptive cross-sectional study, involving 573 respondents carried out between September 2014 and February 2015. Using a systematic sampling technique, respondents aged between 18 and 69 years were recruited, data were collected with a structured self- administered questionnaire. Result: Of the 573 respondents recruited into the study, 62.2% (n=356) used dietary supplements; made up of 19.2% (n = 110) males and 43.0% (n =246) females. Dietary supplements use were more prevalent among respondents with post-secondary school education, 24.1% (n = 138), married 19.5%, (n=112), as well as those in the high level income group, 26.4% (n = 151).Herbs were the most preferred dietary supplements among respondents in this study accounting for 23.0% (n = 132).The reported major source of information about dietary supplements among respondents in this study was health care professionals 28.1% (n = 100). There was a statistically significant relationship between dietary supplements use and the presence of hypertension (p = 0.001); Diabetes mellitus (p = 0.002) and osteoarthritis (p = 0.004) among respondents in this study. Conclusion: Findings from this study show that dietary supplements are a ready source of complementary therapy. There is therefore a compelling need to regulate its standard and quality. Communication between patients and physicians is important so as to avoid any adverse effects associated with the concomitant use of dietary supplements and orthodox medicines.

    Received: May 21, 2015 Accepted: Jun. 1, 2015 Published: Jun. 19, 2015

    DOI: 10.11648/j.cmr.20150404.11 View: Downloads:

  • Authors: Daniel Emana, Kalid Jemal, Mitiku Bajiro, Zeleke Mekonnen

    Abstract: Background: School-aged children have been identified as high risk group of population to be infected with soil- transmitted helminths (STH) in developing countries. Although, there were previous reports concerning the prevalence; but limited data are available with regards to intensity of the STH. Therefore, the objective of current study was to assess the prevalence and intensity of STH and associated risk factors among school-aged children at Sigmo primary school. Method: Cross-sectional study design was conducted from March-April 2015, at Sigmo primary school children, Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Study subjects were selected from grade 1-8 with in age groups between 5-18 yrs old with multistage sampling techniques. The demographic and risk factor analysis data were collected by using pre-tested and structured questionnaires from parents/guardian or teachers of the children. Prevalence and intensity of STH were determined by using Kato-Katz thick smear techniques. Student’s data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 software package, both logistic regression and chi-square statistical analysis approaches were applied. Results: Out of 330 calculated sample sizes, 302 were participated in the study. The overall prevalence of STH was 41.7%. A. lumbricoides was the predominant parasite (19.8%) followed by T. trichiura (15.6%). In logistic regression, latrine usage (AOR: 1.77, 95% CI, 1.09-2.87, P=0.020), habit of hand washing before meal (AOR=1.776, 95% CI, 1.098-2.871, P=0.019) and habit of hand washing after toilet (AOR=1.595, 95% CI, 1.005-2.531, P=0.048) were predictor of STH infections in the study area. Regarding sex as possible risk factor, male children were infected more than female children, but not statistical significant. Overall infection intensity of A. lumbricoides in the study area was (20.2%), T. trichiura (16.9%) and hookworm was (1.67%), respectively. Conclusion: Prevalence of STHs in the study area was quite high and calls for at least annual mass drug administration in addition to prompting preventive actions like health education, personal hygiene and provision of clean water in the study area.

    Received: May 28, 2015 Accepted: Jun. 10, 2015 Published: Jun. 25, 2015

    DOI: 10.11648/j.cmr.20150404.12 View: Downloads:

  • Authors: Agete Tadewos Hirigo, Demissie Assegu Fenta, Tadewos Beyene Bala, Selamawit Gutema Bule, Meseret Regassa Gemechu

    Abstract: Background: Immunological and virological response evaluation is one of a critical tool for assessing treatment outcome, regimen change and patient’s management. However, data concerning any change in immunological and virological response in HIV infected patients using anti-retroviral treatment (ART) is scarce in Ethiopia. Method: This retrospective cohort study was conducted from April 2010–September 2013 at ART clinic of Hawassa University referral hospital. A total of 86 HIV-infected patients receiving Tenofovir, Stavudine and Zidovudine based regimen with either of Efavirenz or Nevirapine during ART initiation. Lamivudine is common for all. Adequate immuno-virological response for most patients under treatment is defined as an increase in CD4 cells of 50–150/µl per year and viral load (VL) drops to undetectable level (<150 copies/ml) after ≥ 6 months of ART. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20. Results: mean CD4+ cells count shows significant increment at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after ART treatment among patients having VL <5 (log10) compared to those VL ≥5 (p=0.04; 0.002; < 0.0001; 0.001) respectively. Females have insignificantly better Mean CD4+ cells throughout 24 months. Also patients over 50 years of age do show an immune response after ART initiation. But, in relative to younger patients, their CD4 cells recovery is insignificantly sluggish. CD4+ cells and body weight of concordant positive responders show significant rising trend at 6, 12, 18, 24 months when compared to discordant responders + concordant non-responders, and p-value: (0.003 vs. 0.05; <0.0001 vs. 0.04; 0.001 vs.0.008; 0.001 vs.0.03) respectively. Moreover logistic regression models were applied and significant factors associated with discordant immuno-virological response were patient’s body weight (AOR=0.14; 95% CI: 0.03-0.7; p=0.02) and residence (AOR=20.3; 95% CI: 2.2-188; p=0.008). Conclusion: Immuno-virological response assessment is a critical tool for addressing treatment outcome, regimen change and patient’s management for those peoples living with HIV using ART. Therefore we recommend that treatment response decision should include both CD4+ cells count and viral load concurrently.

    Received: Jun. 1, 2015 Accepted: Jun. 11, 2015 Published: Jun. 29, 2015

    DOI: 10.11648/j.cmr.20150404.13 View: Downloads:

  • Authors: Irenee Messanh Kueviakoe, Essohana Padaro, Kossi Agbetiafa, Yao Layibo, Malewe Kolou, Ahoefa Vovor, Akuete Yvon Segbena

    Abstract: Objectives: Determine the frequency of malignancies diagnosed in myelogram seen in hematology services of Campus and Sylvanus Olympio Teaching Hospitals in Lome from 1992 to 2013. Study the epidemiology profile of these diseases. Materials and methods: It was an analytical retrospective study of 469 cases of malignancies diagnosed in 1511 myelograms during 21 years in both teaching hospital of Lome. Results: Blood disorders represent 31.70% of the results of myelogram performed during 21 years in the Teaching Hospital of Lome. Each year, there is an average of 22.3 cases diagnosed hematological malignancies. The most hematological malignancies were Kahler's disease (28.57%), chronic myeloid leukemia (24.52%), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (22.17%), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (12.58%) and acute myeloid leukemia (8.10%). Other (4.05%) were represented by the essential hypereosinophilic syndrome (4 cases), hairy cell leukemia (4 cases), Sezary lymphoma (3 cases), essential thrombocythemia (3 cases), Waldenstrom's disease (2 cases), acute myelomonocytic leukemia (1 case), prolymphocytic leukemia (1 case) and plasma cell leukemia (1 case). By gender, the CLL is most predominant in women against CML in men. Hemopathies were observed at all ages of life. Conclusion: Hematological malignancies are diagnosed in the Teaching Hospital of Campus and Sylvanus Olympio in Lome with a high relatively frequency. This prevalence must be higher if all cases of malignancies diagnosed in Togo were recorded in a national cancer register. This study aims to knowledge of epidemiological aspects of hematological malignancies and improve the care of patients with hematological malignancies by the provision of adequate anti-mitotic drugs.

    Received: May 17, 2015 Accepted: Jun. 7, 2015 Published: Jul. 4, 2015

    DOI: 10.11648/j.cmr.20150404.14 View: Downloads:

  • Authors: Bâ Hamidou Oumar, Menta Ichaka, Sangaré Ibrahima, Sidibé Noumou, Diall Ilo Bella, Coulibaly Souleymane, Daou Adama, Sogodogo Adama, Touré Mamadou, Traoré Aladji, Djiguiba Youssouf, Sanogo Kassoum Mamourou

    Abstract: Objective: This study was intended to determine the prevalence of HO and characteristics of patients who had an OH. Methodology: The study was cross-sectional, conducted in the cardiology department of the UH GT from January to June 2013 in a population of known hypertensive patients aged over 15 years seen as outpatients and who agreed to participate in the study. OH and NonOH were used to name patients with and without OH. OH was looked up to 5 min. The analysis was performed with SPSS software. Results: The overall prevalence of OH was 31.8% Age, SBP, DBP and HR were lower for NonHO patients resp. p = 0.004, <0.0001 <0.0001 and 0.016. The female sex had a low predictive value compared to male (OR 0.594 and p = 0.011). The OR for the occurrence of OH versus the age group > = 60 years were 1.974, 2.616 and 1.692 respectively for ages < 30, 30-44 and 45-59 years (p = 0.004). The OR for the occurrence of OH versus compared to higher education level were 0,411, 0,326 et 0,716 (p=0,049) resp. for unschooled, primary and secondary level. Conclusion: OH is frequent in the hypertensive population with nearly a third of patients. His research must be extended up to 5 minutes.

    Received: May 29, 2015 Accepted: Jun. 21, 2015 Published: Jul. 4, 2015

    DOI: 10.11648/j.cmr.20150404.15 View: Downloads:

  • Authors: Gabriel Olusegun Emanuel, Busari Olusegun Adesola, Komolafe Akinwumi Oluwole, Agboola Segun Mathew, Elegbede Olayide Toyin, Omoragbon Aishatu

    Abstract: Background. The burden of cervical cancer is on the increase, especially in developing countries, where programmed or regular screening for the disease with Papanicolaou smear is inadequate. The objective was to determine the awareness and practice of cervical cancer screening in a rural tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Methodology. 220 consecutive and consenting women of age 20–70years attending Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido-Ekiti and Comprehensive Health Centre, Oke-Isa, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State were recruited between April and August 2009. Relevant data were collected using interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaires. Results. Mean age ± SD of participants was 41.2 ± 12.6 years and mean age at sexual debut was 20 years. Twenty three (10.7%) participants were single and all were sexually active. 147 (68.4%) had more than one life time sexual partner. 78 (36.3%) of participants were aware of cervical cancer but only 39(18.2%) were aware of its screening, and majority (71.8%) got to know about cervical cancer through health workers. Increasing age, multiple sexual partners, parity more than 4, having a partner who has multiple sexual partners and polygamy were significantly associated with development of pre-malignant lesions for cervical cancer in this study. Conclusion. Majority of the participants were not aware of CC and the steps to be taken to prevent it from occurring. This poses a tremendous health education challenge.

    Received: Jun. 25, 2015 Accepted: Jul. 20, 2015 Published: Jul. 31, 2015

    DOI: 10.11648/j.cmr.20150404.16 View: Downloads:

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