Clinical Medicine Research

ISSN Online: 2326-9057 ISSN Print: 2326-9049

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Volume 4, Issue 2, March 2015

  • Authors: Mulambalah Chrispinus Siteti, Siteti Darwin Injete

    Abstract: Parasitic protozoan infections that affect reproductive health are being increasingly recognized as a serious global health problem with impact on individual women and men, their families and communities. The infections can have severe consequences, including infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, miscarriage, and increased risk of HIV transmission. Some affect both men and women, and can also be transmitted from mothers to children during pregnancy and childbirth. These infections affect more than just reproductive health, the resultant morbidity also affects the economic productivity and quality of life of many individual women and men, and consequently, of whole communities, regions and countries. The review intents to re-focus the attention of health professionals on this subject by shedding light on these unjustly neglected parasitoses commonly considered of low public health importance. Many of these parasitic infections have been forgotten and have become the neglected diseases often overlooked and rarely a high priority globally.

    Received: Feb. 1, 2015 Accepted: Feb. 13, 2015 Published: Feb. 25, 2015

    DOI: 10.11648/j.cmr.20150402.11 View: Downloads:

  • Authors: Sacit Nuri Gorgel, Osman Kose, Ozan Horsanalı, Evren Sahin, Ugur Balci, Kutan Ozer, Cengiz Girgin

    Abstract: Objectives: To investigate relationship between the lymphovascular invasion(LVI) and tumor characteristics and to evaluate effect on survival of LVI in patients who underwent radical cystectomy because of bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: Five hundred and six patients were enrolled the study between 1990 and 2013. Patients were divided into two groups in terms of lymphovascular invasion at final pathology after radical cystectomy. There were 108 patients with LVI(group1) and 244 patients without LVI(group2). Both groups were compared in terms of clinicopathologic features and survival. Results: There was no statically different for gender in both group(p=0,222).Lymh node involvement, grade, and p T stage were higher significantly in group 1(p<0,05). Positive lymph node number was 2.3±3.1 in group 1 and 0.6 ± 2.1 in group 2(p<0.001). Lymph node density was 24.3±30.1 in group 1 and 5.6±9.2 in group 2 (p<0.001).Estimated mean survival time was 27.2±3.4 months in group 1 and 80.2 ± 8.1 months in group 2 (p<0.001). Conclusions: Lymphovascular invasion is an independent prognostic factor for disease specific survival and effects survival negatively in patients who underwent radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. Patients with lymphovascular invasion should be considered for close monitoring after cystectomy.

    Received: Dec. 11, 2014 Accepted: Feb. 11, 2015 Published: Feb. 26, 2015

    DOI: 10.11648/j.cmr.20150402.12 View: Downloads:

  • Author: Fekadu Alemu Atire

    Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is one of the world’s most devastating human pathogens that cause more than 2 million deaths annually. In addition, an estimated 2 billion people are latently infected with M. tuberculosis. Ethiopia is ranked 7th among TB burden shouldering countries in the world. The data collection was carried out typically by secondary data source from already recorded document. The data was obtained from the data clack of pulmonary tuberculosis patients (PTB) individuals at Yirga Cheffe Health Center. From a total of 1190 subjects who are registered to assessed for tuberculosis diseases at the Yirga Cheffe Health Center study sites, 676 (56.81 %) male were diagnosed followed by female 514 (43.19 %) were diseased by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The PTB disease were highly predominant among male with increase slightly across the year from 2008-2013 and the highest were 58.75 % at 2013. The TB disease were increased among children from 2008-2013 in both sex (male and female). The highest percentage of pulmonary tuberculosis patients were observed at 2012 on male at age >49 with 10.18 % while on female pulmonary tuberculosis patients were observed at 2011 with 7.32 %. To conclude that the prevalence of PTB disease among both sex at study area were high in early. The pulmonary tuberculosis patients were decreased across the 2008-2013.

    Received: Feb. 5, 2015 Accepted: Feb. 19, 2015 Published: Mar. 2, 2015

    DOI: 10.11648/j.cmr.20150402.13 View: Downloads:

  • Author: Starry Homenta Rampengan

    Abstract: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a condition, in which an obstruction of blood flow in veins is found due to the formation of blood clots in the deep veins. An objective diagnosis of DVT is based on ultrasonography examination. However, in poor countries, including Indonesia, many hospitals still do not have the facilities of ultrasonography, less vascular specialists, or D-dimer examination and therefore, to establish the diagnosis of DVT they only can rely on history taking and physical examination. To find out whether the high Hamilton PPS can be used to diagnosis of DVT and whether the high Hamilton score the greater the possibility for DVT, and to know it sensitivity and specificity. A cross-sectional study was done, which was conducted to identify the reliability (sensitivity and specificity) of Hamilton PPS in establishing DVT diagnosis. The study used the Color Duplex Sonography (CDS) for extremity veins as the gold standard. We enrolled 193 patients with probability of DVT. Hamilton PPS and extremity veins CDS were done and tabulation was performed and data was analyzed statistically. Data analysis for testing was performed by the logistic regression analysis and Receiver Operating Characteristic curve using a computer software program of SPSS version 17.0. Hamilton score has sensitivity 0.8, specificity 0.85, accuracy of value 0.84 and positive predictive value 0.63, negative predictive value 0.93.The correlation between Hamilton score and sonography to diagnosis of DVT is positive with the sensitivity and specificity of Hamilton score is ≥ 80 %.

    Received: Jan. 29, 2015 Accepted: Feb. 19, 2015 Published: Mar. 3, 2015

    DOI: 10.11648/j.cmr.20150402.14 View: Downloads:

  • Authors: Afewerki Kahsay Kidanemariam, Gebremedhin Gebreegziabiher Gebrehiwot

    Abstract: Introduction: HIV/AIDS is one of the most destructive epidemics the world has ever witnessed. Non-adherence to the proposed antiretroviral regimen is considered to be one of the greatest dangers to the response to treatment on an individual level and the dissemination of resistant viruses on the community level. An adherent patient is defined as one who takes > 95% of the prescribed doses. Objective: To assess the level of adherence and associated factors among adult HIV/AIDS patients receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Mekelle Hospital, Northern Ethiopia. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out from January 1, 2013 to July 30, 2013 among 382 adult PLWHA (>=18 years) attending HAART clinic at Mekelle Hospital. Data was collected by a combination of structured questionnaire and document review. The data was entered and cleaned using Epi-Info; transported to SPSS 16.0 version for final analysis. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with adherence. Results: The rate of self reported adherence in the study based on the Schedule and indicator of the dose, time measurement in the last 7 days was (78.3%). Females were more adhered than males (185(87.7%)). Alcohol users have poor adherence than non alcohol users with 70.5% and 82.2% level of adherence respectively. Sex and educational status of the study participants were significantly associated with level of adherence with AOR (95% CI) of 3.81(2.18, 6.69) and 2.60(1.43, 4.71) respectively. Conclusion: The level adherence we found, 78.2%, is still very low considering the WHO recommendation of 95%. Sex and educational status of the study participants were significantly associated with level of adherence with AOR (95% CI) of 3.81(2.18,6.69) and 2.60(1.43,4.71) respectively. More focus should be given to males and individuals with low educational status to improve level of adherence and to assure the efficacy of HAART in prolonging the life of PLWHA. Adherence is a process, not a single event, and adherence support must, therefore, be integrated into regular clinical follow up. Investigation of factors related with long-term adherence would require longer follow-up than the present study.

    Received: Oct. 4, 2014 Accepted: Oct. 18, 2014 Published: Mar. 6, 2015

    DOI: 10.11648/j.cmr.20150402.15 View: Downloads:

  • Authors: Oluwadare Ogunlade, Muritala Abiola Asafa

    Abstract: The potentials of electrocardiogram (ECG) in sex determination in young adults have not been extensively explored despite the fact that ECG is one of the most frequently performed medical procedures. This study aimed at developing a simple electrocardiographic score system that could assist in sex determination in young adults. Patterns of ECG in male and female young adults were carefully analyzed and features that could be used to delineate the ECG into male and female patterns were selected as criteria for formulation of a simple scoring system called Ogunlade sex determination electrocardiographic score (OSDES).Components of OSDES were point scores in four electrocardiographic parameters; T wave configuration in V1 (1-3), ST segment in V2 or V3 (1-3), QRS rotation (1-3) and heart rate (1-3). The total minimum and maximum scores were 4 and 12 respectively. An individual with a total score of < 7 was identified as a female while an individual with a score ≥ 7 was identified a male. Thus, with OSDES, ECG can be classified into two; male pattern and female pattern for male and female respectively. This unique scoring system was tested among 474 healthy young adults (294 males and 180 females). Two hundred and eighty eight (288) of the 294 males were correctly identified by OSDES as males while 174 of the 180 females were correctly identified as females (k = 0.946, p < 0.001). The study defined male and female ECG patterns and concluded that ECG can be used to determine sex among young adult population.

    Received: Mar. 1, 2015 Accepted: Mar. 12, 2015 Published: Mar. 17, 2015

    DOI: 10.11648/j.cmr.20150402.16 View: Downloads:

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