Clinical Medicine Research

ISSN Online: 2326-9057 ISSN Print: 2326-9049

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Volume 4, Issue 3-1, May 2015

  • Authors: Antwi W. K., Gawugah J. N. K., Kyei K. A., Opoku S. Y., Arthur L., Anim Sampong S., Ofori E. Batsa S.

    Abstract: Background: Protocols provide a baseline for audit opportunity as well as evidence for clinical governance, since the use of protocols ensure compliance with documented scope of professional practice. Objectives: We determined the existence and variations of radiographic protocols for radiographic examinations of axial and appendicular skeleton in X-ray departments within the Accra Metropolis and also to establish whether there were variations in the projections taken among the departments for these examinations. Methods: A questionnaire containing mostly open ended question, was given to the radiographers who were in-charge of the departments and those in charge of the various clinical rooms of the selected hospitals and polyclinics to complete. Codes were assigned each of the departments, the examinations and the sets of projections indicated for the examinations. The data gathered was analyzed using SPSS version 16 software and presented in tabular and graphical forms. Results: In all eight X-ray departments were studied. Majority (80%) of the respondents indicated having protocols. All respondents agreed to the technical fact that examination protocols must be written and documented and copies made available in all clinical rooms. Conversely, only 20% of the respondents representing 25% of the departments surveyed had examination protocols document. Conclusion: Radiographic examination protocols were lacking in most departments. There was lack of understanding among Radiographers in the departments without protocols about the concept of examination protocols and so confused it with radiographic technique. The absence of protocols led to variations in the projections taken among the departments. It also negated the radiographers’ knowledge of radiographic techniques through the choice of wrong projections for some of the examinations, affecting the examination results and hence patient outcome.

    Received: Jan. 30, 2015 Accepted: Jan. 30, 2015 Published: Mar. 2, 2015

    DOI: 10.11648/j.cmr.s.2015040301.11 View: Downloads:

  • Authors: Antwi W. K., Kyei K. A., Opoku S. Y.

    Abstract: Evidence-based practice (EBP) in imaging as in any health profession is to provide quality health care based on clinical governance. This is to ensure that quality care is provided daily based on a credible research evidence. Randomized Control Trial (RCT) has been accepted as the best research design to provide credible evidence of an intervention for patient care and if well conducted. Therefore other research methods need to be developed to provide credible systematic reviews for a wider application. It is clear that this research design has prospects in imaging, however for now imaging guidelines and general consensus of experts will still be preferred as RCTs are gradually being developed in imaging.

    Received: Jan. 30, 2015 Accepted: Jan. 30, 2015 Published: Mar. 2, 2015

    DOI: 10.11648/j.cmr.s.2015040301.12 View: Downloads:

  • Authors: Kyei K. A., Antwi W. K., Opoku S. Y., Yarney J., Amoah E.

    Abstract: Background: Multidisciplinary health-care procedures do encounter some challenges that have some legal implications. One way of addressing these issues is by issuance and signing of medical consent. Obtaining medical consent is simply making sure that patients understand why a procedure is being recommended, which alternatives are available, what will happen if the procedure is not performed, how it will be done, and the risks involved. Aim: To assess information given to cancer patients before consent forms are signed and radiographers’ role on its usage. Methodology: Qualitative approach was used to assess patients’ information before signing consent and radiographers’ role of it. Open and close questions were used. Data was analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) version 18.0. Forty participants were used for the study. Results: The study indicated all the patients were adequately informed before signing consent forms. 86.7% of the radiographers were aware of the role extension and its legal implications but are not aware of any establishment practicing role extension in Ghana. Conclusion: It was revealed that all the patients who participated were informed of their diagnosis, treatment options, the duration of treatment and the risks involved before taken their treatment decision. Almost all radiotherapists were aware of role extension but were not aware of any establishment seeking to practice it in Ghana.

    Received: Jan. 30, 2015 Accepted: Jan. 30, 2015 Published: Mar. 21, 2015

    DOI: 10.11648/j.cmr.s.2015040301.13 View: Downloads:

  • Authors: Kyei K. A., Antwi W. K.

    Abstract: Background: The clinical setting is one of the most valuable resources available to training institutions to prepare students to competently care for patients and also execute certain tasks with little or no supervision. Aim: To examine the impact of clinical placement on radiography students’ clinical experience. Methodology: A quantitative study design using a Likert-Scale questionnaire was used to assess clinical practice-learning environment. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 17.0 (SPSS). Forty seven (47) undergraduate student radiographers participated in the study. Results: Students indicated they had adequate knowledge and enjoyed their time on the clinical placement. They indicated that the staffs were supportive, friendly and approachable. The students were also able to achieve their learning outcome during placement, however feedbacks from supervisors according to the students were inadequate and students were not sure of the use of research findings by the clinical venues. Conclusion: Clinical placement had adequate student support. It is important however, to consider carefully where students have their clinical practice and at what point of their studies the different placements should be carried out. Collaboration between the key stakeholders is essential to ensure that students have a good experience at clinical placement.

    Received: Jan. 30, 2015 Accepted: Feb. 2, 2015 Published: Mar. 21, 2015

    DOI: 10.11648/j.cmr.s.2015040301.14 View: Downloads:

  • Author: Antwi W. K.

    Abstract: Reflection on an experience has been found to improve practice and therefore it is included in the inter-professional training programmes of health the professions. It improves professional expertise because it allows learning from experience. Through reflective practice the conventional way of understanding and performing a particular duty could also be given a new sense. Reflection is a way of examining practice through series of critical and creative thinking which allows one to comprehend the reasons of some actions during practice and make a move to either improve on a positive situation or correct some negative actions. This paper is a descriptive narration of a reflection on action after a piece of teaching which formed part of a fieldwork education activity.

    Received: Jan. 30, 2015 Accepted: Jan. 30, 2015 Published: Mar. 21, 2015

    DOI: 10.11648/j.cmr.s.2015040301.15 View: Downloads:

  • Authors: Kyei K. A., Antwi W. K.

    Abstract: Background: Evidence suggests that children are more susceptible to radiation risks or hazards. In particular, their gonads are more sensitive to the effects of radiation, especially at or below reproductive age. Protecting the gonads of children and adults is of particular importance to the imaging. Aim: To investigate level of the use of gonad protection during paediatric abdomen and pelvic X-ray examinations in the Accra metropolis. Method: A quantitative, descriptive and cross sectional survey were applied where systematic random sampling was used to select five hospitals from Accra Metropolis (Ghana) that provided radiological services and had permanent radiographers. Three different tools were used in the study for data collection: observation, questionnaire and evaluation of pediatric radiographs of abdomen and pelvis. Results: A total of 44 out of 46 Radiographers recruited in five hospitals completed the questionnaire and were also involved in the observational study. The study achieved a 95.65% response rate. It was identified that 46% (n=20) of the radiographers reported they had no gonad shields in their department. Few departments (13%) had no shields at all and 39% (n=17) of the respondents applied gonad shields only on male sexes. Although there were no laid down policies in the departments surveyed 55% of the respondents reported they were aware of policies regarding the use of gonad shields. Conclusion: It appears that there are no standardised national policies on radiation protection in general for hospitals to follow and so it is absent in the imaging departments. This has affected the availability of gonad shields and adherence to its application to protect patients. To improve quality diagnostic imaging service, there is the urgent need for management to pay serious attention to patient protection especially children against unnecessary exposure to ionising radiation during X-ray procedures. Hospital management must communicate the relevant policies and local rules concerning radiation protection in particular the use of gonad shield to protect children.

    Received: Jan. 30, 2015 Accepted: Jan. 30, 2015 Published: Mar. 21, 2015

    DOI: 10.11648/j.cmr.s.2015040301.16 View: Downloads:

  • Authors: Antwi W. K., Kyei K. A.

    Abstract: Providing feedback to students is a vital skill needed by all clinical teachers. For students to develop and improve their skills in the activity they are involved in, they need to know how they are performing. Providing feedback does not follow that there will be optimal learning. Students should, in the initial stages, be made aware of the desired standard or goal, because it enables them to compare their own performance with the required standard. It is therefore suggested that it should be made known to the learner, some detail of what to do and what they can do in order to improve. Clinical activities of students without feedback could affect their skill training and the patients as well. Proper guidelines should be followed and attention should also be given to those students with learning difficulties.

    Received: Jan. 30, 2015 Accepted: Jan. 30, 2015 Published: Mar. 21, 2015

    DOI: 10.11648/j.cmr.s.2015040301.17 View: Downloads:

  • Authors: Kyei K. A., Antwi W. K., Bamfo-Quaicoe K., Offei R. O.

    Abstract: Background: Clinical training forms part of the requirements of every radiography student, for the award of Bachelor’s degree at the University of Ghana. The effectiveness of clinical training is responsible for the competency level that would be demonstrated by qualified radiography students. However, the capabilities of department to provide adaptive and well managed clinical training for undergraduate students have been reported as a limiting factor. Aim: The purpose of the study was to identify challenges facing the student radiographers during clinical training. Methods: The study was a quantitative one which employed a descriptive survey approach. The survey comprised of levels 300 and 400 students of the department of radiography which gathered forty-two (42) participants. A questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. Data obtained was summarized as frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations using SPSS version 16.0. Results: The study revealed challenges faced by radiography students such as the gap between theory and practices, inadequate exposure to certain specialized procedures and time allotted to each treatment room. Conclusion: The study showed that clinical training can be enhanced by providing enough equipments and clinical areas for students, also films and cassettes must be made available before the date and time of clinical training. Finally, the theory aspects of clinical training must be in tune with the practice to enhance effective learning experience by students.

    Received: Jan. 30, 2015 Accepted: Jan. 30, 2015 Published: Mar. 21, 2015

    DOI: 10.11648/j.cmr.s.2015040301.18 View: Downloads:

  • Authors: Antwi W. K., Kyei K. A.

    Abstract: The need to re-examine radiation protection and safety measures to protect the people in Ghana is therefore essential. This is because medical X-ray diagnosis in the country continues to increase. It is the responsibility of the radiation worker to protect patients, self, staff and the members of the public against unnecessary exposure to ionizing radiation. Medical radiation protection is an important aspect of quality care that X-ray departments are expected to provide for their patients. Following increasing concern about radiation hazards from medical diagnostic x-ray, radiation dose assessment of patients undergoing medical diagnostic x-ray examinations has been suggested. However, to implement them requires an effective infrastructure which includes adequate laws and regulations, efficient regulatory system, experts on radiation protection and operational provisions.

    Received: Jan. 30, 2015 Accepted: Jan. 30, 2015 Published: Mar. 21, 2015

    DOI: 10.11648/j.cmr.s.2015040301.19 View: Downloads:

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