Clinical Medicine Research

ISSN Online: 2326-9057 ISSN Print: 2326-9049

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Volume 4, Issue 2-1, April 2015

  • Authors: Demirtzoglou Iordanis, Tsolaki Magda, Gougoulias Kyriakos, Oikonomidis Panagiotis, Karampatakis Vasileios

    Abstract: Purpose: To assess retinal structural changes in persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and to correlate these changes with the level of cognitive function. Material-methods: Using high-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in MCI and control subjects we assess peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer (RNFL) thickness loss, macular volume and macular thickness loss in all nine EDTRS (early treatment diabetic retinopathy study) areas, and macular Ganglion Cell Complex (GCC) (inner plexiform + ganglion cell layer + retinal nerve fiber) thickness loss. We assessed cognitive function using Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score. Results: In the study group there was found a statistically significant decrease in RNFL overall (Mann-Whitney test, p: 0.009) and temporal thickness (T-test, p: 0.013) and increased macular GCC Focal Volume Loss (FVL%) (Mann-Whitney test, p: 0.001) compared to the control group. In control group was also found a statistically significant positive correlation between retinal structural parameters and MMSE score. Conclusion: Our preliminary study results suggest that RNFL overall and temporal thickness in patients with MCI is significantly decreased compared to normal controls. GCC FVL% is significantly increased in patients with MCI compared to normal controls suggesting that there is macular focal loss of ganglion cells in MCI patients.

    Received: Jul. 30, 2014 Accepted: Aug. 22, 2014 Published: Sep. 17, 2014

    DOI: 10.11648/j.cmr.s.2015040201.11 View: Downloads:

  • Authors: Arshad Yahya, Mina Chandra, Kuljeet Singh Anand, Jyoti Garg

    Abstract: Dementia is a mental health disorder of global public health concern. The syndrome of dementia may be caused by various underlying diseases, each characterized by a specific constellation of signs and symptoms in combination with a presumed underlying substrate of neuropathology. Behavioral and psychological symptoms are integral part of dementia. They increase morbidity, influence quality of life and are major source of care giver burden. To be effective, dementia care need to focus on the early detection of BPSD and its management. The spectrum of behavioral and psychological symptoms in different each types of dementia are different and they should be managed accordingly to relieve care giver burden.

    Received: Dec. 23, 2014 Accepted: Dec. 28, 2014 Published: Feb. 8, 2015

    DOI: 10.11648/j.cmr.s.2015040201.12 View: Downloads:

  • Authors: Prabhoo Dayal, Ankur Sachdeva, Mina Chandra, Kishore Hindustani, Kuljeet Singh Anand

    Abstract: Wernicke’s encephalopathy (WE) is an acute neuro-psychiatric syndrome due to inadequate supply of thiamine (vitamin B1) to the brain which leads to significant morbidity and mortality. Although alcohol use is the most common predisposing factor but Wernicke’s encephalopathy can occur in any patient with nutritional deficiency conditions such as hyperemesis gravidarum, hemodialysis, malignancy, use of total parenteral nutrition without adequate thiamine, and abdominal surgery. In a developing country, there are more chances of thiamine deficiency, because of poor intake of nutrients in routine diet due to economic reasons and local customs and cultural practices concerning the processing and cooking of rice and other foodstuffs. The national household survey of drug use in India (2004) found prevalence of alcohol use in about 21.4% of male population between 18-40 age group. Most of the emergency physicians and general practitioners are not well sensitized about neuropsychiatric disorders in patients with alcohol use disorders. Such patients are still under diagnosed. Till date, no such studies are available about treatment of wernicke-korsakoff syndrome in Indian population. Educating clinicians, specially emergency physicians about evaluation and treatment of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is as important as to educate people to eat well balanced, mixed diet containing thiamine rich food as most of these patients receive emergency treatment but are frequently unrecognized. If undiagnosed or inadequately treated, it is likely to proceed to Korsakoff syndrome. Therefore best treatment for Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is prompt diagnosis and adequate treatment.

    Received: Dec. 23, 2014 Accepted: Dec. 28, 2014 Published: Feb. 8, 2015

    DOI: 10.11648/j.cmr.s.2015040201.13 View: Downloads:

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